In the last article, we’ve discussed the types of classful subnetting that is too simple. we’ve lent host bits in the common /8, /16, and /24 network prefixes. However, using classless subnetting we are able to borrow bits from the host bit position to produce other masks. For instance here, a /24 network generally subnetted by longer prefix lengths by borrowing bits in the 4th octet. The administrator has the capacity to assign network addresses to some smaller sized quantity of finish devices using classless subnetting using the longest prefix and smaller sized network. The figure below illustrates the /24 network further into smaller sized systems.
- The first posts illustrate the prefix period of each subnet after borrowing bits in the 4th octet
- The second posts illustrate the subnet mask for every subnetted network.
- The third posts illustrate all of the network bits, host bits and lent bits within the subnet mask. Capital N is showing network bits, Capital H is showing host bits while small n is showing lent bits.
- The 4th column illustrates the amount of functional host per subnetted network.
- The last column illustrates the amount of available sub-network after borrowing bits.
Classless Subnetting Example
The figure below illustrates the non-public network with /24 prefix. The network is 192.168.200.. The very first three octets are displayed in decimal, as the last octet is displayed in binary because we will obtain the lent bit in the 4th octet to produce more sub-systems.
The subnet mask signifies the prefix length is 24 bits. The very first three octets would be the network portion and also the last octet may be the host portion as proven within the above figure. With /24 prefixes (without subnetting) this network provide 254 functional host addresses supporting just one LAN.
When we needed yet another LAN in the same IP network (192.168.200./24 ), the network would want subnetting. Following is a few questions/ problem for subnetting exactly the same IP network.
The administrator needed 2 sub-network from network 192.168.200./24 network. So, to begin with, we needed to achieve the solutions towards the following questions.
1.Total IP addresses with /24 prefix?
2.Total functional IP addresses with /24 prefix?
3.What’s the Network Address?
4.What’s the Broadcast Address?
So, to begin with, we will explain the above mentioned questions. We all know there are total 32 bits in Ip /24 implies that 24 bits are areas of the network portion and also the remaining 32-24 = 8 bits would be the areas of the host portion so we realize that:
Therefore we have needed 2 sub-systems in the above network so we have needed all of the above answer for sub-systems. Keep in mind that the 4th octet is displayed in binary because we are borrowing bits out of this octet to produce more sub-systems.
The initial question is the fact that just how much bits you should be borrowing for just two systems, the formula for that network is “2n = quantity of network”
Therefore if we put 21 = 2, it’s imply that we ought to borrow 1 bit in the host portion as proven within the figure below. 1 bit is lent from the most important bit (leftmost bit) within the host portion, Therefore it extends the network portion to 25 bits or /25. The lent bit should be converted from to at least one since the network bits ever 1’s and also the host bits ever 0’s.
The figures in lent bits ought to be different for every subnet. The 2 subnets are caused by different the need for the lent bit either or 1. The figure below illustrates both sub-systems.
For that octet in Internet is 00000000 as well as in Internet 1 is 10000000. When we convert the 4th octet to decimal we are able to begin to see the resultant subnets which are 192.168.200./25 and 192.168.200.128/25.
The figure below illustrates both subnets using the resultant subnet mask. Notice the way it utilizes a one in the lent bit position to point this bit has become area of the network portion. The Figures also displays the dotted-decimal representation of both subnet addresses as well as their common subnet mask. The subnet mask for every subnet is 255.255.255.128 or /25 since it has one lent bit.
The figure below displays the key addresses for subnet 192.168.200./25 and 192.168.200.128/25.
- Network addresses are 192.168.200./25 and 192.168.200.128/25 and both contain all bits within the host portions
- First functional host addresses of both systems are 192.168.200.1 and 192.168.200.129, both contain all bits along with a right-most bit within the host portion is 1.
- The last functional host addresses of both systems are 192.168.200.126 and 192.168.200.254, both contain all 1 bits within the host portion except the best-most and last bit within the host portion that is .
- Broadcast addresses of both systems are 192.168.200.127 and 192.168.200.255 contains all 1s within the host part of Ip.
Example 2 – Needed 4 sub-systems in the same Network 192.168.200./24.
Now we needed 3 sub-systems in the same private network address 192.168.200./24. The initial question elevated as:
The number of bits needed to gain access to from host portion to network portion for 4 sub-systems. ?
Borrowing just one bit provides 2 subnets so, go further for borrowing another host bit. For borrowing 2 bits lead to (22 = 4) subnets. So, we ought to borrow 2 bits in the host portion to network portion as proven within the figure below. The resultant subnet mask or network prefix from the subnetted network is altered to /26 or 255.255.255.192.
The worth XX illustrates the bit ought to be altered for every network. We’ve lent 2 bits in the host portion. So, within the first network or Subnet- the worth for that XX = 00, Subnet-1 the worth for XX=01, Subnet-2 worth of XX=10, and Subnet-3 worth of XX= 11.
We are able to determine the amount of hosts per network consider the last octet within the figure above. After borrowing 2 bits in the subnet in the 4th octet, you will find 6 host bits remaining. Use the host calculation formula (2h-2= Functional host) as proven to show that every subnet supports functional 62 host addresses. The figure below display the functional addresses of every subnet.